Summary: NifU-like domain
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NifU-like domain Provide feedback
This is an alignment of the carboxy-terminal domain. This is the only common region between the NifU protein from nitrogen-fixing bacteria and rhodobacterial species. The biochemical function of NifU is unknown .
Ouzounis C, Bork P, Sander C; , Trends Biochem Sci 1994;19:199-200.: The modular structure of NifU proteins. PUBMED:8048161 EPMC:8048161
Internal database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR001075
Iron-sulphur (FeS) clusters are important cofactors for numerous proteins involved in electron transfer, in redox and non-redox catalysis, in gene regulation, and as sensors of oxygen and iron. These functions depend on the various FeS cluster prosthetic groups, the most common being [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] [ PUBMED:16221578 ]. FeS cluster assembly is a complex process involving the mobilisation of Fe and S atoms from storage sources, their assembly into [Fe-S] form, their transport to specific cellular locations, and their transfer to recipient apoproteins. So far, three FeS assembly machineries have been identified, which are capable of synthesising all types of [Fe-S] clusters: ISC (iron-sulphur cluster), SUF (sulphur assimilation), and NIF (nitrogen fixation) systems.
The ISC system is conserved in eubacteria and eukaryotes (mitochondria), and has broad specificity, targeting general FeS proteins [ PUBMED:16211402 , PUBMED:16843540 ]. It is encoded by the isc operon (iscRSUA-hscBA-fdx-iscX). IscS is a cysteine desulphurase, which obtains S from cysteine (converting it to alanine) and serves as a S donor for FeS cluster assembly. IscU and IscA act as scaffolds to accept S and Fe atoms, assembling clusters and transfering them to recipient apoproteins. HscA is a molecular chaperone and HscB is a co-chaperone. Fdx is a [2Fe-2S]-type ferredoxin. IscR is a transcription factor that regulates expression of the isc operon. IscX (also known as YfhJ) appears to interact with IscS and may function as an Fe donor during cluster assembly [ PUBMED:15937904 ].
The SUF system is an alternative pathway to the ISC system that operates under iron starvation and oxidative stress. It is found in eubacteria, archaea and eukaryotes (plastids). The SUF system is encoded by the suf operon (sufABCDSE), and the six encoded proteins are arranged into two complexes (SufSE and SufBCD) and one protein (SufA). SufS is a pyridoxal-phosphate (PLP) protein displaying cysteine desulphurase activity. SufE acts as a scaffold protein that accepts S from SufS and donates it to SufA [ PUBMED:17350000 ]. SufC is an ATPase with an unorthodox ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-like component. SufA is homologous to IscA [ PUBMED:15278785 ], acting as a scaffold protein in which Fe and S atoms are assembled into [FeS] cluster forms, which can then easily be transferred to apoproteins targets.
In the NIF system, NifS and NifU are required for the formation of metalloclusters of nitrogenase in Azotobacter vinelandii, and other organisms, as well as in the maturation of other FeS proteins. Nitrogenase catalyses the fixation of nitrogen. It contains a complex cluster, the FeMo cofactor, which contains molybdenum, Fe and S. NifS is a cysteine desulphurase. NifU binds one Fe atom at its N-terminal, assembling an FeS cluster that is transferred to nitrogenase apoproteins [ PUBMED:11498000 ]. Nif proteins involved in the formation of FeS clusters can also be found in organisms that do not fix nitrogen [ PUBMED:8875867 ].
This entry represents the C-terminal of NifU and homologous proteins. NifU contains two domains: an N-terminal ( INTERPRO ) and a C-terminal domain [ PUBMED:8048161 ]. These domains exist either together or on different polypeptides, both domains being found in organisms that do not fix nitrogen (e.g. yeast), so they have a broader significance in the cell than nitrogen fixation.
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||iron ion binding (GO:0005506)|
|iron-sulfur cluster binding (GO:0051536)|
|Biological process||iron-sulfur cluster assembly (GO:0016226)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
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This family is a member of clan NifU (CL0232), which has the following description:
This clan includes the C-terminal domain of NifU as well as a large family of uncharacterised domains.
The clan contains the following 2 members:FeS_assembly_P NifU
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets and the UniProtKB sequence database. More...
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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Curation and family details
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|Seed source:||Pfam-B_1206 (release 3.0)|
|Previous IDs:||NifU; NifU-like;|
|Author:||Finn RD , Bateman A|
|Number in seed:||432|
|Number in full:||9443|
|Average length of the domain:||66.7 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||40 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||34.5 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 61295632 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||20|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the adjacent tab. More...
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
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There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
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Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
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For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the NifU domain has been found. There are 7 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein sequence.
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AlphaFold Structure Predictions
The list of proteins below match this family and have AlphaFold predicted structures. Click on the protein accession to view the predicted structure.