Summary: Diacylglycerol kinase accessory domain
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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Diacylglycerol kinase". More...
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Diacylglycerol kinase Edit Wikipedia article
Diacylglycerol Kinase (DGK) is an integral membrane protein that is expressed in E. coli. DGK has 121-residues and is a trimeric enzyme. DGK catalyzes the conversion of diacylglycerol (with ATP) to phosphatidic acid.
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Diacylglycerol kinase accessory domain Provide feedback
Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a second messenger that acts as a protein kinase C activator. This domain is assumed to be an accessory domain: its function is unknown.
Sakane F, Yamada K, Kanoh H, Yokoyama C, Tanabe T; , Nature 1990;344:345-348.: Porcine diacylglycerol kinase sequence has zinc finger and E-F hand motifs. PUBMED:2156169 EPMC:2156169
Sakane F, Imai S, Kai M, Wada I, Kanoh H; , J Biol Chem 1996;271:8394-8401.: Molecular cloning of a novel diacylglycerol kinase isozyme with a pleckstrin homology domain and a C-terminal tail similar to those of the EPH family of protein-tyrosine kinases. PUBMED:8626538 EPMC:8626538
Schaap D, de Widt J, van der Wal J, Vandekerckhove J, van Damme J, Gussow D, Ploegh HL, van Blitterswijk WJ, van der Bend RL; , FEBS Lett 1990;275:151-158.: Purification, cDNA-cloning and expression of human diacylglycerol kinase. PUBMED:2175712 EPMC:2175712
Kanoh H, Yamada K, Sakane F; , Trends Biochem Sci 1990;15:47-50.: Diacylglycerol kinase: a key modulator of signal transduction? PUBMED:2159661 EPMC:2159661
Internal database links
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||YegS_C|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR000756
Protein phosphorylation, which plays a key role in most cellular activities, is a reversible process mediated by protein kinases and phosphoprotein phosphatases. Protein kinases catalyse the transfer of the gamma phosphate from nucleotide triphosphates (often ATP) to one or more amino acid residues in a protein substrate side chain, resulting in a conformational change affecting protein function. Phosphoprotein phosphatases catalyse the reverse process. Protein kinases fall into three broad classes, characterised with respect to substrate specificity [ PUBMED:3291115 ]:
- Serine/threonine-protein kinases
- Tyrosine-protein kinases
- Dual specificity protein kinases (e.g. MEK - phosphorylates both Thr and Tyr on target proteins)
Protein kinase function is evolutionarily conserved from Escherichia coli to human [ PUBMED:12471243 ]. Protein kinases play a role in a multitude of cellular processes, including division, proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation [ PUBMED:12368087 ]. Phosphorylation usually results in a functional change of the target protein by changing enzyme activity, cellular location, or association with other proteins. The catalytic subunits of protein kinases are highly conserved, and several structures have been solved [ PUBMED:15078142 ], leading to large screens to develop kinase-specific inhibitors for the treatments of a number of diseases [ PUBMED:15320712 ].
Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a second messenger that acts as a protein kinase C activator. The DAG kinase domain is assumed to be an accessory domain. Upon cell stimulation, DAG kinase converts DAG into phosphatidate, initiating the resynthesis of phosphatidylinositols and attenuating protein kinase C activity. It catalyses the reaction: ATP + 1,2-diacylglycerol = ADP + 1,2-diacylglycerol 3-phosphate. The enzyme is stimulated by calcium and phosphatidylserine and phosphorylated by protein kinase C. This domain is always associated with INTERPRO .
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||diacylglycerol kinase activity (GO:0004143)|
|Biological process||protein kinase C-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway (GO:0007205)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
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a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
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Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
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This family is a member of clan NAD_kinase_C (CL0701), which has the following description:
This superfamily includes families that are related to the C-terminal beta sandwich domain of NAD kinase. It includes the YegS C-terminal domain, the accessory domains from Diacylglycerol kinase and the ceramide kinase C-terminal domain.
The clan contains the following 4 members:CERK_C DAGK_acc NAD_kinase_C YegS_C
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database (reference proteomes) using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets and the UniProtKB sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
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You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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|Author:||Ponting CP , Schultz J, Bork P|
|Number in seed:||32|
|Number in full:||10032|
|Average length of the domain:||154.1 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||40 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||19.09 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 61295632 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||22|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the adjacent tab. More...
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
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AlphaFold Structure Predictions
The list of proteins below match this family and have AlphaFold predicted structures. Click on the protein accession to view the predicted structure.